Cooperation Agreement between German network operators (current version 29 June 2012)
esp. §§ 22-27 and §§ 50-60 set out out content elements of IAs. Some TSOs have published template IAs on thier websites.
Generally the mangement of gas quality specifications works well at German IPs, so gas can flow without barriers.
However it seems that the narrow British gas quality specs have a knock on effect throughout continental gas networks and require active gas quality management measures in certain circumstances.
In general, a criteria could be that the barrier should be addressed at those IPs where the narrowest gas spec has its origin.
The German gas quality specification range (as estabnlished in DVGW technical rule G 260) is expected to be wide enough to accommodate any gas quality that could pop up in Garmany in the next ten years.
At IP Medelsheim/Obergailbach:
physically gas cannot flow into the German network, commercially it is possible by virtuals backhaul up to the nominated forward flow
Currently there seems to be no relevant interest to physically flow gas from France to Germany.
According to public sources (GRTgaz 10 year plan) it is considered to enable the physical flow of non-odorised gas via Medelsheim/Obergailbach as of 2017.
BNetzA is not in the position to estimate the costs of the different solutions. Given the above planning, the issue will be resolved anyway.
For the German networks no systematic study exists.
Given the above planning, the issue will be resolved anyway.
Given the above planning (see question 7), the issue will be resolved anyway.
Due to the fact that gas is not odourised on the transmission level, turbines, industrial applications and storages are not adjusted to the respective odourant.
Please refer to TSO answer.
The technical rules DVGW G 260 and 280 foresee that the TSO level is non-odourised.
Deodourised gas has to be conform to the same technical standards as non-odourised gas and is not generally excluded.
Research led to DVGW technical standard G 290.
Units are not fixed in national law/regulation but in (technical) standards (DIN - Deutsches Institut für Normung and DVGW)
In section 4.8 of the royal decree of 23 December 2010 on the code of conduct for access to the natural gas transmission system, the storage and lng facilities and amendment of the royal decree of 12 June 2001 on the general conditions for natural gas supply and the conditions for granting of natural gas supply licenses (BS 05/01/2011), the following is stipulated:
Limits in Belgium have been set to coop with supplies coming from different sources. These are broad limits not to jeopardize the gas entering Belgium from our neighboring countries. However, as a lot of these gas is also transiting the country, the acceptability of the gas to the other country had to be taken into account. As long as the flow was route specific, this was straightforward. But since entry/exit decoupled the entries with the exits, more insecurity has been introduced, which is to be dealt with by the TSO as far as they can. Whenever the limits are more stringent on the other side, a potential barrier is identified for gas that wants to leave the country. In this respect, capacity conditional to the right gas quality specfication has been offered, to allow the TSO to deal with this situation. This is especially true for the Belgian – UK direction on Wobbe. The degree of capability of the TSO to facilitate the gas flow, is one trigger to define the need for a solution, market demand is an other.
Discussions in Belgium around the TYNDP have always taken into account gas quality issues, in a surge for opportunities to let these issues being facilitated by the TSO.
In Belgium, odorisation takes not place at the transmission level.
Yes. CREG is not aware of any cross-border trade related problems that were brought to our attention by network users, but the problem was avoided by France to allow, when deciding on the project of the Dunkerke terminal, to build a direct line for the export of non-odourised gas towards Belgium. This opens the door for swap possibilities in France. Traditionally speaken, gas supply in Belgium did never come from the south.
Although intermediate steps to come to this situation might be important to mention, like swap agreements.
If France becomes a net exporter, flow from France to Belgium (and Germany) will be hampered.
No studies have been performed to our knowledge.
'Gas should not be odourised:
To our knowledge, no research have been performed.
No rules exist.
Yes. Fluxys and IUK have the same approach to odourisation.
No specific reference is made to the use of units in legislation.
No, there are not any related rules.
No barrier has benn identified.
There is no odourisation at transmission level
In relation to limits set in gas quality specifications, there is no particular barrier identified to physically move the gas in both directions at the IPs.
We are used to handle different gas qualities already since we receive LNG from all over the world. We have not had any problem so fat users comply with gas quality specifications.
In Spain, gas is odourised at transmission level using Tetrahydrothiophene (hereafter THT) where 15 mg THT/m3 is added. Also, 7 mg THT/m3 is added at distribution level. The final concentration is 22 mg THT/m3 (8 mg S/m3).
The gas received from Morocco and Algeria is non-odourised. The contractual and technical rules have been established by bilateral agreement to import gas. Once in the national system, gas is treated to adapt it to quality requirements.
The mentioned Royal Decree 1434/2002, 27th December, on the regulation of transmission, distribution, trading, supply and procedures of gas infrastructure permissions.
In his Chapter X, Quality on gas supply, the article 63 Gas quality, reads as follows:
In particular, NGTS-5 Measurement, and PD-01 (Detailed Procedure), approved by “Resolución” of Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism on 22 september 2011: Measurement, quality and odourisation of gas.
There are no specific provisions regarding non-odorised gas and a de-odourised gas.
So far, we are not aware of any study about “masking effects” at national level.
There is a feasibility study to modify the central odourisation system in region of Western Hungary. Scenarios: central or local odorisation All scenarios were investigated as full, immediate changes
There is no safety or other technical reason to do the odourisation at transmission level, only applicable regulation and cost efficiency considerations play a role
The regulations focus on the odorized gas only. The odorization of gas that exits in FGSZ system for domestic usage is obliged.
There are no potential barriers, related to gas quality, identified up to now at IP’s at Polish borders
The scope of acceptable gross calorific value (GCV) in Polish TSO’s grid and Polish regulations is similar to European standards related to gas quality (i.e. EASEE-gas). We do not expect any problems related to different GCV or another quality parameters at IP’s on Polish TSO’s grid borders
Regarding clarification in emails (29 March) this question is for TSOs
Yes. System operators shall conclude uniform interconnection point agreements for all interconnection points. OBA is the preferred option. Provisions are contained in the Natural Gas Act 2011 and in the Gas Market Model (Amendment) Ordinance 2013.
Natural Gas Act 2011 Chapter 3 - Common Provisions - Interconnection Point Agreements
There is no barrier identified or expected currently.
The Gas Market Model (Amendment) Ordinance 2013 contains a provision on gas quality in its Annex 2 (2):
No. There is no odorisation at transmission level.
No. E-Control is not aware of any research about “masking effects” at national level.
Units are not fixed in national law/regulation but in technical standards, e.g. in OVGW guidelines G 31 Gasqualität (gas quality), G 177 Gasabrechung (billing). (OVGW: Austrian Association for Gas and Water).
There is no national rule on this subject.
In the national grid codes the following units are used:
No specific national rules/regulations relating to interconnection agreements.
The issue of gas quality is adressed in the interconnection agreements signed by French TSOs and their counterparts in adjacent countries. The current flow patterns do not generate specific issues relating to gas quality: the different specifications are managed by the TSOs and do not hamper cross-border flows.
No specific measures foreseen.
GRTgaz is conducting a study relating to its project of decentralising the odorisation process in France. The detailed results of this study have not been communicated to CRE at this stage. However, the milestones and timeline are described by GRTgaz in its TYNDP (see response to Q5).
Not by AEEG.
see answer to question 21.
are no national rules or regulations setting out or governing cooperation
between TSOs. CER has oversight and unofficially signs off on the Connected
Systems Agreement governing the agreements between adjacent TSOs on
gas quality (GQ) standards are generally in line with the UK’s and as the
specifications are aligned, GQ is not seen as a likely barrier to trade. While
new sources of gas are expected to come on stream in the next decade
(indigenous production at Corrib and LNG imports) these new sources of gas will
be required to meet entry specifications.
as physical reverse flow is not available from the Irish to UK market, any differences
in GQ specifications will not pose a barrier to trade. In reality however, in
the event that physical reverse flow becomes feasible as a result of a surplus
of gas in the Irish market after domestic demand is met, it will be necessary
to ensure that GQ specifications do not impede trade flows.
should only be obliged to harmonise GQ where physical reverse flow is
Ireland and UK have matching gas quality specifications, no gas quality barrier
to trade exists. There is good cooperation between the Irish and UK TSOs, and respective NRAs and there are existing fora where any issues arising could be addressed.
do not expect gas of a different quality to ‘pop up’ in our network in the next
10 years. Any changes in gas quality are unlikely as Ireland enjoys a
relatively protected position from gas quality variations – at the end of a
single pipeline with limited indigenous sources. The Corrib gas field is
expected to come on stream in 2015 and LNG injection may begin by 2017 at
Shannon but both gas sources will be obliged to meet the entry specifications.
addition of biomethane into the system could also potentially have an impact on
GQ in parts of the system but any initial GQ leeway provided to biomethane
plants is based on an assumed low level of injection. Any allowance for commingling
of biomethane in the natural gas grid would be restricted if high levels of
biomethane injection were reached.
TSO has systematic gas quality monitoring in place which will detect any sudden
changes in gas specification but no specific activities are ongoing to prepare
for systemic changes in gas quality across the system in future.
is currently not an issue as we cannot export gas. If in the future Ireland has
excess gas after domestic demand is met and can potentially export surplus gas
to the UK, we will need to consider the issue of odourisation at transmission
are no barriers as there is no surplus of gas in Ireland. Ireland has limited indigenous production (approximately 5% of demand) and one storage facility which can provide approximately 10% of demand.
The CER has not undertaken a comprehensive study of a change in odourisation practice specifically.
The TSO, in a Regulation 994 physical reverse flow market test for the Moffat
Interconnector estimated a deodourisation facility to treat gas flows from
Ireland to UK would require a CAPEX of approximately €50m. There would also be
on-going costs for such a facility.
CER has not studied acceptable levels of odourant.
odourisation of the transmission network is in line with the ALARP (as low as
is reasonably practicable) safety principle upon which all gas safety issues
are judged, as required in national legislation. In a geographically small
state such as Ireland it is a cost effective way of meeting the ALARP
requirement and ensuring public safety from gas leaks. Any change to Ireland’s
odourisation practices would require a robust analysis showing clear benefits
outweighing the reduction in public safety provided by an odourised transmission system.
No categories of
units are specified under national law or regulation. Gas quality
specifications are set out in the Gaslink Code of Operations. The Code of
Operations is legislated for in Section 13.1 of the Gas Amendment Act, 2002. The
units and ranges set out in the Code are included below.
Specification Of Natural Gas At Entry Points
Sulphur ≤ 50mg/m3 (including H2S)
≤ 0.2 mol%
Dioxide ≤ 2.5 mol% 
Sulphide ≤ 5mg/m3
Content ≤ 50mg/m3
Calorific Value (Real Gross Dry) 36.9 - 42.3 MJ/m3
Index (Real Gross Dry) 47.2 – 51.41 MJ/m3
Combustion Factor < 0.48
Temperature 1 0C to 38 oC
< 0.1 mol%
Index < 0.60
Halides < 1.5 mg/m3
< 5 Becquerels/g
< 12 mol %
≤ 5 mol %
Dewpoint ≤ - 2oC up to 85 barg
CO2 limit of 2.5% will not be considered breached if the total inerts
(including CO2) in the gas is less than 8% where: “inerts” in natural gas means
carbon dioxide(CO2), nitrogen(N2), helium(He), argon(Ar), and oxygen(O2).